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In terms of legal policy relating to the German criminal code, the Nazi Party opposed efforts to decriminalize sexual relations between men and repeal Paragraph During parliamentary debates, Nazis claimed that sexual relations between men were a destructive vice that would lead to the ruin of the German people.
They asserted these relations should be even more severely punished than current German law allowed. But some leaders, as well as rank and file members, of the Nazi Party held attitudes that were more varied and ambivalent. He was the leader of the SA Sturmabteilung , commonly called Stormtroopers , a violent and radical Nazi paramilitary.
Rather, he believed it was about the overthrow of mainstream morality. His sexuality was then used in the election propaganda of the moderate-left Social Democratic Party Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands. The Nazis came to power on January 30, Shortly thereafter, they sought to dismantle the visible gay cultures and networks that had developed during the Weimar Republic.
Similar closings of gay meeting places occurred across Germany. However, in cities like Berlin and Hamburg, some established gay bars were able to remain open until the mids. Underground gay meeting places remained open even later.
Nonetheless, the Nazi closures and increased police surveillance made it far more difficult for gay men to connect with each other. Another early action undertaken by the Nazi regime was the elimination of gay newspapers, journals, and publishing houses. The Nazi regime also forced gay associations to dissolve. These book burnings targeted works written by prominent Jewish intellectuals, pacifists, and left-wing authors. The destruction of the institute was a clear sign that the Nazis would not tolerate the reformist sexual policies that the institute promoted.
In a further escalation, the Nazis used new laws and police practices to arrest and detain without trial a limited number of gay men beginning in late and early This was part of a larger Nazi effort to reduce criminality. The Nazi regime instructed the police to arrest people with previous convictions for sexual crimes such as public exhibitionism, sexual relations with a minor, and incest. These crimes were defined in Paragraphs of the German criminal code.
In fall , the Berlin Gestapo political police instructed local police forces to send them lists of all men believed to have been engaged in same-sex behavior. Police in various parts of Germany had been keeping such lists for many years. However, centralizing this list in the hands of the Berlin Gestapo was new.
In addition, the Gestapo specified that local offices should be sure to note if these men were members of Nazi organizations and if they had any prior criminal convictions under Paragraph These early measures were just the beginning of the Nazi campaign against homosexuality. Nazi actions would escalate in the second half of the s. These killings changed how Nazi propaganda talked about homosexuality.
Second, in June the Nazis revised Paragraph , the statute of the German criminal code that banned sexual relations between men. Under the new Nazi version of the statute, a wide range of intimate and sexual behaviors could be, and were, punished as criminal. In addition, the Nazi revision stipulated that non-consensual and coercive acts between men could result in a sentence of up to ten years of hard labor in prison.
The revision provided the Nazi regime with the legal tools necessary to prosecute and persecute men engaged in same-sex behavior in much larger numbers than before. This office was part of the Kripo criminal police and worked closely with the Gestapo political police. The notoriously homophobic Himmler saw both homosexuality and abortion as threats to the German birth rate and thus to the fate of the German people.
By the end of , conditions were in place for the Nazi regime to intensify its campaign against homosexuality. The Nazi campaign against homosexuality intensified in — From this point forward, the regime focused less on shutting down gay meeting places.
Instead, the Nazis prioritized the arrest of individual men under Paragraph Himmler believed that targeting these men was necessary for the protection, strengthening, and proliferation of the German people. He directed the Kripo and Gestapo to diligently carry out a campaign against homosexuality. These police forces used raids, denunciations, and harsh interrogation and torture methods to track down and arrest men whom they believed violated Paragraph In the mid- to late s, the police raided bars and other meeting places that they believed to be popular with gay men.
The police set up cordons around bars or other locations, and questioned anyone who seemed suspicious. Some men caught up in raids would be released if there was no proof against them. Those whom the police deemed guilty would be tried for violations of Paragraph or, in some cases, sent directly to a concentration camp.
Police raids were public and high-profile displays in the Nazi campaign against homosexuality. Through raids, the police threatened and intimidated gay communities and individuals. However, raids were not particularly effective.
They were not the primary means through which the police tracked down men for alleged violations of Paragraph A neighbor, acquaintance, colleague, friend, or family member could inform the police of their suspicions. The language people used in denunciations makes it clear that these Germans tended to agree with Nazi attitudes towards homosexuality.
These acts resulted in perhaps tens of thousands of arrests and convictions. The Gestapo and Kripo interrogated men caught up in raids, as well as those denounced. During these often physically and psychologically brutal interrogations, the police frequently insisted on full confessions.
Under the pressure of harsh interrogation and torture methods, men were forced to name their sexual partners. This in turn helped the police identify other men to arrest and interrogate. In this way, the police caught entire networks of gay men. Not all men arrested under Paragraph shared the same fate. Typically, an arrest would lead to a trial before a court. The court would either acquit or convict the accused and sentence them to a fixed prison sentence.
The conviction rate was approximately 50 percent. Most convicted men were released after serving their prison sentence. Typically, but not always, men sent to concentration camps in this way had multiple convictions or other extenuating circumstances. The Nazi German judicial system also introduced castration into legal practice. As of late , courts could order mandatory castration for certain sexual offenders. However, at least initially, men arrested under Paragraph could not be castrated without their supposed consent.
In some cases, men imprisoned under this statute could secure early release if they volunteered to be castrated. The needs of a total war took precedence over the Nazi campaign against homosexuality. Many men who had Paragraph convictions either joined or were conscripted into the German military. Nevertheless, arrests and convictions under Paragraph continued throughout the war years. Scholars estimate that there were approximately , arrests under Paragraph during the Nazi regime.
Over half of these arrests approximately 53, resulted in convictions. Many, but not all, of these pink triangle prisoners identified as gay. The pink triangle called attention to this prisoner population as a distinct group within the concentration camp system.
According to many survivor accounts, pink triangle prisoners were among the most abused groups in the camps. Sometimes pink triangle prisoners were assigned the most grueling and demanding jobs in the camp labor system. They were often subjected to physical and sexual abuse by camp guards and fellow inmates. In some cases, they were beaten and publicly humiliated.
In Buchenwald concentration camp , some pink triangle prisoners were subject to inhumane medical experiments. Beginning in November , concentration camp commandants officially had the power to order the forced castration of pink triangle prisoners.
Fearing guilt-by-association, already prejudiced fellow prisoners shunned pink triangle prisoners. Pink triangle prisoners were left isolated and powerless within the prisoner hierarchy. Prisoner networks provided tools of survival, such as access to food and clothing, for many camp inmates. The fact that most pink triangle prisoners were German-speakers provided some measure of protection by giving them access to less onerous work details such as administrative positions.
Nonetheless, the typically isolated position of these prisoners made their survival much more difficult. An unknown number of pink triangle prisoners died in the concentration camps. Gay men could be imprisoned and persecuted in concentration camps for reasons other than their sexuality.
Some gay men were sent to camps as political opponents, Jews, or as members of other prisoner categories. In these cases, their sexuality was generally secondary to the reason for their imprisonment. They wore the badge that corresponded to their official prisoner category. An unknown number of gay Jewish men were murdered in the Holocaust. Gay men responded to Nazi persecution in different ways.
Not all gay men made the same decisions. Nor did they all have the same choices. For example, gay men categorized by the Nazi regime as Aryan had far more options than those categorized as Jews or Roma Gypsies. Jewish and Romani gay men—above all—faced persecution for racial reasons. Some gay men, especially those with financial resources, could try to hide their sexuality and outwardly conform. Some broke off contacts with their circles of friends or withdrew from the public sphere.
Others moved to new cities, the countryside, or even to other countries. Some gay men also entered marriages of convenience. There were gay men who took the risk of resisting the Nazi state for political and personal reasons. Some gay men joined underground anti-Nazi resistance groups or helped hide Jews. In spring , Allied soldiers liberated concentration camps and freed prisoners, including those wearing the pink triangle.
But the end of the war and the defeat of the Nazi regime did not necessarily bring a sense of liberation for gay men. They remained marginalized in German society. Most notably, sexual relations between men remained illegal in Germany throughout much of the twentieth century. Tens of thousands more were convicted in the postwar era. Uncovering the histories of gay men during the Nazi era was difficult for much of the twentieth century because of continued prejudice against same-sex sexuality and the ongoing enforcement of Paragraph Many gay men were afraid to share their testimonies or write memoirs.
The efforts of scholars and German gay rights organizations have helped to bring the persecution of gay men under the Nazis into the public eye. In , the government overturned Nazi-era convictions for Paragraph It was also used by individuals, sometimes discreetly or ambiguously as an "insider" code unfamiliar to the general public. In the s, a pink triangle enclosed in a green circle came to be commonly used as a symbol identifying " safe spaces " for LGBTQ people at work or in school.
The pink triangle served as the basis for the " biangles ", a symbol of bisexual identity which consists of pink and blue triangles overlapping in a lavender or purple area. The pink and blue symbolize either homosexuality and heterosexuality, or femininity and masculinity, reflecting bisexuals' attraction to both. The symbol of the pink triangle has been included in numerous public monuments and memorials.
In a jury chose the pink triangle design for the Homomonument in Amsterdam, to memorialize gay men killed in the Holocaust and also victims of anti-gay violence generally. Until there was an unofficial ban on placing pink triangle wreaths at the United Kingdom war memorial the Cenotaph , and such wreaths were removed as soon as they were found by officials. Pink triangle Rosa Winkel in German memorial for gay men killed at Buchenwald. In the Berlin Nollendorfplatz subway station , a pink triangle plaque honors gay male victims.
Photo by: Manfred Brueckels. Amsterdam's Homomonument uses pink triangles symbolically to memorialize gay men killed in the Holocaust and also victims of anti-gay violence generally. Sydney Gay and Lesbian Holocaust Memorial. Category:LGBT culture. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Nazi concentration camp badge, later international symbol of gay pride and the gay rights movement. For the Weezer song, see Pink Triangle song.
For the audio manufacturer, see Pink Triangle audio manufacturer. LGBT portal. Arizona SB ISBN Archived from the original on Retrieved Retrieved August 22, May 31, Making Queer History. Holocaust Encyclopedia. United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Retrieved 24 August Der Spiegel.
Whisnant Associated Press. Washington Post. Retrieved 22 August Journal of the History of Sexuality. S2CID Claude J. Summers ed. In the early s, gay rights organizations in Germany and the United States launched campaigns to reclaim the pink triangle. In the German gay liberation group Homosexuelle Aktion Westberlin HAW called upon gay men to wear the pink triangle as a memorial.
Nursing Clio. Hughes South Bend. South Bend Tribune. Queerer Things. American Journal of Public Health. ISSN PMC PMID Greenwood Publishing Group. People's World.
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